Chapitres

Formes

PAST PERFECT SIMPLE
Affirmation
I had looked we had looked
you had looked you had looked
he had looked they had looked
she had looked
it had looked
Négation
I had not looked we had not looked
you had not looked you had not looked
he had not looked they had not looked
she had not looked
it had not looked
Interrogation
had I looked? had we looked?
had you looked? had you looked?
had he looked? had they looked?
had she looked?
had it looked?
PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE
Affirmation
I had been looking we had been looking
you had been looking you had been looking
he had been looking they had been looking
she had been looking
it had been looking
Négation
I had not been looking we had not been looking
you had not been looking you had not been looking
he had not been looking they had not been looking
she had not been looking
it had not been looking
Interrogation
had I been looking? had we been looking?
had you been looking? had you been looking?
had he been looking? had they been looking?
had she been looking?
had it been looking?
Notes
  • La forme simple du Past Perfect a la forme had + participe passé (c'est-à-dire, V-ed). Voici une liste des verbes irréguliers.
  • La forme progressive du Past Perfect a la forme had + been + participe présent (c'est-à-dire, V-ing).
  • Avant d'ajouter -ing ou -ed, il faut doubler la consonne finale si les deux conditions suivantes sont remplies:
    • le verbe se termine par une seule voyelle suivie d'une seule consonne,
    • la dernière syllabe est accentuée, ou il n'y a qu'une syllabe — pour savoir si la dernière syllabe est accentuée ou non, il faut consulter un dictionnaire.

Emploi

Le Past Perfect en général

En général, on emploie le Past Perfect pour parler d'un lien entre un moment passé et un moment encore plus loin dans le passé:

  • Lorsque nous parlons au prétérit déjà et nous voulons parler d'un événement encore plus loin dans le passé, nous employons le past perfect.
    • Ex. When Peter went to the theatre, he discovered that all the seats had been sold. — Lorsque Peter est arrivé au théâtre, il a découvert que toutes les places avaient été vendues.
  • On emploie la forme progressive pour dire pendant combien de temps un certain événement durait avant qu'un autre ne se produise - les deux événements sont dans le passé.
    • Ex. I had been waiting for 20 minutes when Paul arrived. — J'avais attendu pendant 20 minutes avant que Paul n'arrive.
  • Le past perfect s'emploie avec the first (second, third, fourth ... nth) time lorsque cette première (2ème, 3ème, 4ème ... énième) fois est dans le passé.
    • Ex. It was the first time we had met. — C'était la première fois que nous nous étions rencontrés.

Si on compare le Past Perfect avec le Present Perfect (voir leçon) on constate que dans ce dernier cas il s'agit d'un lien entre un moment passé et le présent tandis dans le cas du Past Perfect le lien est entre deux moments du passé, l'un étant plus récent que l'autre. Par exemple:

  • It is 9 o'clock and I have been waiting for over an hour. ('is' = présent, 'have been waiting' = present perfect)
  • It was 9 o'clock and I had been waiting for over an hour. ('was' = prétérit, 'had been waiting' = past perfect)

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Agathe

Professeur de langues dans le secondaire, je partage avec vous mes cours de linguistique !

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